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    以章公祖师肉身坐佛追索案为出发点,本文分析了文物流失的历史根源与现实背景,梳理出文物追索面对的难题,在此基础上,提出破解文物追索困境的中国方案:完善国内法律体系,鼓励人民法院行使国际民事审判权;在“一带一路”倡议下引领协调沿线国改革国际规则;探索在华成立专门性国际司法机构;将对日追索文物提上议事日程并适时推进;尽快启动相关案例研究,为制定文物追索战略与策略提供理论基础。一、引言2015年3月,福建三明大田县吴山乡阳春村20年前失窃的章公祖师肉身坐佛在匈牙利展出。消息传出,举国震惊。自此以后,如何让坐佛早日回家,成为全体中国人的心愿与社会各界关注的热点问题。然而,追索之路漫长而艰难,直到2017年7月14日,荷兰阿姆斯特丹地区法院才进行了首场法庭听证,且迄今未对任何事项作出裁决。当地村民焦急万分,民众也逐渐失去耐心。越来越多的人感到困惑:在中国国力与影响力空前强大的当下,一件有证据证明为被盗于中国的文物,追索起来为何会举步维艰?事实上,放眼世界,可以发现,章公祖师肉身坐佛追索案极具代表性与样本性,包括埃及、希腊、柬埔寨在内的各文物流失国追索流失海外的文物,莫不面临重重困难。可以这样说,作为中国主动在海外提起的文物追索第一案,章公祖师肉身坐佛追索案深刻折射出包括中国在内的文物流失国追索海外流失文物所处的困境以及破解困局的重要性与紧迫性。需要强调的是,在当今各文物流失国中,除中国外,大都为综合国力较弱的发展中国家,从这个意义上说,破解追索流失文物的困局,为追索流失文物贡献中国智慧、提出中国方案,是中国作为文明古国与崛起中大国应负的国际责任与历史担当。与此同时,我国目前正在大力推进“一带一路”倡议,而沿线国大都为历史悠久、文物资源丰富的国家,世界上最主要的文物流失国因而大多集中于此。职是之故,中国对追索流失文物贡献力量、发挥作用,不仅事关不计其数的非法流失海外的中国文物的命运,而且有利于增强“一带一路”沿线国的向心力与凝聚力,高度契合国家的战略需求。由此可见,以章公祖师肉身坐佛追索案为契机,加强针对海外流失文物的理论研究,提出破解难题的中国方案是一项既具迫切现实意义,又具重大战略价值的任务。二、追索流失文物的现状与难题(一)文物流失的历史根源与现实背景文物的流失具有复杂的历史根源与现实背景。以文物的视角来看,世界可分为文物流出国(文物原属国)与文物流入国(文物市场国)两类。前者主要是指历史悠久、古代文明灿烂的国家,多集中于亚洲、中东、北非、南欧以及中美洲,当前多属发展中国家;后者主要是西方发达国家。从历史根源上看,近代以来,随着地理大发现及工业革命的完成,西方列强的坚船利剑横全球,亚洲、非洲及美洲的大片地区沦为西方的殖民地或附庸。在丛林规则之下,这些地区的大量财富,包括曾见证其古老灿烂文明的文物,源源不断的流向西方。在此历史阶段,亚非拉地区的大量文物因战争、殖民、动乱、贫困、保护与管控缺失等原因流失至西方国家。中国大规模的文物流失也肇始于该历史时期。这种世界范围内的文物“西向汇聚趋势”在19世纪末至20世纪初达到巅峰。所以,从历史根源看,文物流失是西方侵略、殖民统治与暴力掠夺的产物,见证了包括中国在内的各文物流失国的屈辱史。进而言之,由于许多文物系殖民时期由西方列强从亚非拉地区劫掠而得,因此,它们的归属受到复杂的政治、历史、文化与民族情感等因素的羁绊。职是之故,因流失文物归属而引发的国际纠纷,远非纯粹的财产权益之争,其牵涉的各方利益、吸引的国际关注、牵动的各国神经,是其他任何一种财产纠纷无法比拟的。除历史上被西方以暴力方式造成的文物流失以外,在新的国际环境下,盗窃、盗掘与走私已经迅速上升为文物流失的主要肇因。二战结束以来,和平发展成为国际大势,大规模的国际战争得以避免,武装冲突因而不再成为文化财产受到破坏的首要原因。然而,近几十年来,国际市场上文化财产的价格飙涨,这直接导致文化财产贩运的泛滥与文物黑市的火爆。在暴利的诱惑下,大量犯罪分子铤而走险,盗窃、盗掘、走私等文化财产犯罪遂进入高发期。据国际权威机构统计,进入20世纪90年代以后,跨国间的文化财产黑市交易已经成为利润最丰厚的非法贸易之一,并与军火及毒品走私并称为当代三大非法国际贸易。还需强调,尽管自二战结束以来,人类社会整体上处于和平之中,文化财产没有遭受全局性、系统性的破坏,但不时爆发的地区性武装冲突与战乱还是给文化财产的安全蒙上了阴影,并直接导致文物贩运在某些地区、某些阶段呈失控之势。譬如,21世纪以来爆发的第二次伊拉克战争、阿富汗战争以及利比亚、埃及等国的内乱给这些地区的文化财产造成了无法挽回的重大损失,并导致源自此等区域的大量文物流入国际黑市;2014年以来,势力急剧扩张的极端宗教组织“伊斯兰国”大肆破坏文化财产,无数珍贵文物惨遭灭顶之灾;不仅如此,贩卖文物所获得的巨额利益已经成为该组织的主要财源之一。 如何在新的国际环境下有效保护文化财产、打击文物财产贩运,遂成为当代国际社会亟待解决的重大课题。针对各国因文物归属归属而掀起的外交纷争,美国学者詹姆斯·库诺(James Cuno)于2014年底在《外交杂志》上撰文,将之提升到“文化战争”的高度。 还有学者则从建设性的角度提出,“文化外交”已经成为当下各国新的外交着力点,并颇有见地的指出:“在全球化时代,文化也是一种硬通货。”综上可见,文物流失既有其历史根源,也有复杂的现实原因,追索非法律流失文物,因而是一项需要放在历史维度与国际视野下考量的重大任务。(二)追索流失文物的难题20世纪中期以来,殖民体系土崩瓦解,亚非拉地区的民族陆续摆脱西方控制,继而走上独立、富强之路。随着发展中国家文化主权意识、民族自信心与国力的提高,追索非法流失海外文物的呼声愈加高涨。包括希腊、埃及、土耳其、韩国及墨西哥在内的文物流失国通过外交、司法、民间等多种途径积极向文物流入国追索文物,并取得了积极进展。尽管如此,与全球范围内流失海外文物的天文数量相比,这些成功索回的案例所占的比例称得上微乎其微。从目前来看,无论是历史上因战争或殖民统治而流失的文物,还是当代因盗掘、走私等原因流失的文物,绝大多数依然留在文物流入国的博物馆或私人手中。文物流出国的文物追索的正义事业在整体上处于举步维艰的困境之中。造成这一现状的原因是多方面的,概言之,追索海外流失文物的主要难题可以归结为以下几个方面。第一,现有国际公约无溯及力,约束力较弱。二战结束以后,国际社会在保护文物、促进流失文物领返还域陆续制定了一些国际公约,主要包括:《关于发生武装冲突情况下保护文化财产的公约》(简称“1954年海牙公约”)及其议定书、1970年联合国教科文组织制订的《关于禁止和防止非法进出口文化财产和非法转让其所有权的方法的公约》(简称“1970年公约”)与1995年《国际统一私法协会关于被盗或者非法出口文物的公约》(简称“1995年公约”)等。这些国际公约为保护文物免受战争、盗窃、盗掘、走私与贩运之害以及原属国追索非法流失之文化财产燃起了希望,它们的制定与实施,标志着更加公平、正义的国际文物法律体系初具端倪。然而,国际条约的实际效用并不能被高估,利用既有国际公约追索文物主要面临条约无溯及力、约束力有限等难题。首先,依据国际法的基本原则,国际公约只对缔约国有效,而作为主要文物流失目的国的欧美发达国家,多出于自身利益的考量,不愿加入关于文物追索的国际公约,长期游离在公约体系之外,这导致现存国际公约的实际约束力大打折扣。例如,截止2017年10月,仅有37个国家加入了对于文物流失国追索文物最为有利的“1995年公约”,且这37个国家几乎为清一色的文物流失国。其次,现存国际公约无溯及力,故无法适用于公约生效前被盗或非法出口的文物。由于我国大量珍贵文物是在清末直至建国前的战乱中流失海外的,所以,对这部分文物,我国无法依托现存国际公约要求返还。与我国一样,其他大多数文物流失国也面临着同样的问题。以章公祖师肉身坐佛追索案为例,中国虽同时为“1970年公约”与“1995年公约”缔约国,但鉴于荷兰的缔约情况,我方无法依据这两个公约要求荷兰方面返还被盗文物。首先,荷兰虽于1996年签署“1995年公约”,但其议会迄今未批准加入,故该公约对荷兰无约束力。其次,荷兰与中国虽均为“1970年公约”缔约国,但加入公约的时间不同,中国于1989年加入公约,而荷兰直到2009年才受公约约束。现有证据表明,本案所涉佛像于1995年自我国香港地区入境荷兰,依据国际法上“法不溯及既往”的原则及《维也纳条约法公约》关于“条约不溯及既往”的规定,“1970年公约”不能溯及既往的适用于1995年左右入境荷兰的文物。在这种情况下,就不难理解,双方政府间就本案的互动与合作缘何会逐渐停止。事实上,正是由于确信不存在可适用的国际公约,荷兰藏家的态度才日趋强硬,改变了其最初愿意促成返还的表态,不断的漫天要价,甚至在被诉至法院后依然立场顽固,不愿意与村民展开谈判。跨国文物追索适用国际条约之难,由此可见一斑。第二,制定国际规则的主导权由西方文物市场国掌握。即便在有国际条约可以援引的情况下,文物流失国追索文物依然面临诸多困难。这是因为在这些国际公约的制定过程中,文物市场国,尤其是以美国为代表的欧美大国凭借其强大的国家实力与国际影响力,主导了缔约过程,导致公约约文明显偏向维护文物市场国的既得利益,在很大程度上牺牲了文物流失国的正当需求。以当前文物返还领域影响最大的“1970年公约”为例。客观而言,在国际社会分裂成文物资源国与文物市场国的历史背景下,“1970年公约”最大限度的弥合了两大利益集团的分歧,为保护文化财产、打击文化财产贩运、促进流失文物返还制定了最低限度的规则,在国际立法史上留下了历史性印记;尽管如此,需要指出的是,由于缔约过程受到美国等文物市场大国的主导,该公约的不少条款,尤其是核心条款在很大程度上牺牲了文物流出国的利益,因而存在严重的内生性缺陷。从这个意义上说,只有文物流出国与文物市场国的国家实力在整体上发生历史性逆转,国际法规则的主导权不再被文物市场国垄断之后,国际法规则才能向着更加公平正义、更加有利于流失文物返还的方向演进。换言之,现有的国际规则是由欧美文物市场大国主导制定的,明显不利于文物流出国追索文物,这是造成文物追索举步维艰的重要原因。第三,文物追索受制于西方文物市场国的国内法及其法院。从当前文物追索的实践来看,通过司法途径追索流失文物一般为文物流失国或其机构与公民在文物现所在地国,即文物流入国的国内法院提起诉讼。在此背景之下,文物是否能够返还,自然主要取决于文物市场国的国内法及其法官对文物返还所持的立场。换言之,当前的实践表明,文物流出国通过司法途径追索其流失境外的文物,通常需要在文物市场国的法院起诉,诉讼须受文物市场国国内法的支配。在此背景下,文物追索诉讼困难重重,自然难以避免。还是以章公祖师肉身坐佛追索案为例,阳春村村民要打赢这场诉讼,须克服荷兰法上的重重障碍,包括诉讼主体资格、善意取得、取得时效、标的物的定性等。需要指出的是,对于跨国文物诉讼而言,适用文物现持有人所在国的法律,明显对文物原所有人不利。譬如,在第一次法庭听证上,村民委员会是否是适格的诉讼主体成为焦点问题,这是因为村民委员会是依据中国法成立的组织,依据中国法享有诉讼主体资格。但是,荷兰法上并无村民委员会,被告因而提出,法庭应依据荷兰法裁定原告主体资格不适格,驳回诉讼。对于阳春村初民而言,这显然构成法律上的重大不确定因素,章公祖师肉身坐佛是否能顺利返还的前景因而值得担忧。由此可见,通过司法途径追索文物事实上受制于文物市场国的国内法与国内法院,这一状况对文物原属国明显不公。只要这一局面得不到改变,文物追索就始终会充满困难与不确定性。第四,文物流失国单打独奏,而文物市场国已形成“联盟”。20世纪70年代以来,随着亚非拉发展中国家民族意识的高涨,越来越多的文物流出国高擎法律与道义的旗帜,积极向西方文物市场国追索流失文物,尤其是国宝级文物。尽管如此,这些国家的文物追索仍处于单打独奏的状态,迟迟没有形成合力。与此不同,面对着文物流失国愈加主动的追索流失文物,文物市场国,尤其是欧美主要文物市场国,已经开始建立“联盟”,借助联合的力量通过各种途径集体发声,以抵抗文物流出国的追索要求。2002年12月,西方多家著名博物馆联手发布的《环球博物馆价值宣言》即为典型例证。 该宣言提出“文物的国际主义”,宣称人类拥有共同的祖先,各民族的历史是相互影响、相互融合的整体,无法彼此割裂;作为文明的载体,文物因而构成人类的共同财富而不能由某个国家或民族独享。 在此理念之下,宣言指出,“环球博物馆”早期以各种方式获得的他国文物,已经构成这些博物馆的一部分,并由此构成其所在国文化遗产的一部分。该宣言还认为,与一般意义上的博物馆不同,环球博物馆好似“百科全书式的”博物馆,旨在向参观者提供一个参观、鉴赏、比较全人类各种文明与文化成果的平台。因此,由环球博物馆继续持有、展览、收藏这些文化财产符合各国人民的利益。《环球博物馆价值宣言》发布后,在国际社会产生很大影响,其标榜的文物“国际主义”已成为西方文物市场国拒绝返还流失文物所共同秉持的价值理念。由此可见,文物流出国虽然数量众多,但这些国家在文物追索方面始终处于各自为战的状态,没有形成协作关系,没有形成合力;与此相对,文物市场国已经结成“联盟”,试图以集体的力量与声音抵制文物流失国追索文物的要求。这一状况也是造成文物追索事业在整体上推进缓慢的重要原因。以前述文物流失的历史背景与文物追索的现实困境为基础,接下来,本文立足中国,胸怀世界,提出破解流失文物追索困境的中国方案。三、破解文物追索困境的中国方案(一)完善国内立法与司法解释,为中国主动追索文物创造有利的法律环境如前所述,在章公祖师肉身坐佛追索案中,提起诉讼的原告是阳春村村民委员会,这主要因为这座坐佛并非国有文物,而是集体所有的文物。然而,依据我国《文物保护法》第5条,中国境内地下、内水和领海中遗存的一切文物,属于国家所有;古文化遗址、古墓葬、石窟寺属于国家所有。可见,在我国,绝大多数文物属于国有文物,绝大多数流失海外的文物因而也属于国有文物。在此背景下,追索流失海外的中国文物,必须由国家发挥主导作用才能实现突破。鉴此,我国在修订《文物保护法》《民事诉讼法》等法律时,应该对国家提起文物追索诉讼的问题进行顶层设计,明确以国家名义追索流失文物的主体、程序、国际合作等事项,必要时可以制定专门的《海外流失文物追索法》,为流失文物追索提供强大的法治力量。此外,最高人民法院可以考虑通过制定或完善相关司法解释,为文物追索诉讼制定具有操作性的规则,为国家行使流失文物追索权、打破文物追索的困境创造有利的司法制度与环境,为维护国家利益,实现流失文物回归提供司法护航。(二)人民法院积极行使国际民事审判权,做出标杆性判例,树立中国司法在文物返还领域的国际影响力文物追索是一项系统工程,需要国家立法、执法、司法等各个部门发挥作用,相互促进,相互配合。需要指出的是,打破文物追索的困境,人民法院具有不可替代的重要作用,这是由人民法院的功能与中国当前所处的国际环境所决定的。首先,由于司法机关独立行使审判权是包括中国在内的当代各国普遍遵循的基本原则, 与国家的行政机关相比,人民法院通过行使司法审判权(尤其是民商事审判权)处理涉及国家权益的事项具有天然的相对独立性与温和性,其意识形态与政治色彩更为淡化,也更容易被国际社会所接受。可见,由人民法院通过发挥跨国司法治理权解决涉及国家重大利益的事项,具有独特的优势,可以产生更理想的国际效果。在这种情况下,对于国际敏感度较高的跨国文物归属争议,由人民法院通过行使国际民事审判权解决之,可以最小的国家成本主张我国权益,显示我国立场,并为今后通过包括法律途径在内的其他途径解决争端积累国家实践与证据意义上的有利先例,从而为推进全球治理机制向更加公正合理的方向发展,为我国发展和世界和平创造更加有利的条件。其次,中国已经从过去单纯的文物流出国变为兼具文物市场大国与文物资源大国的双重身份,这一特殊历史背景为人民法院通过行使国际民事审判权确立标杆性判例,促进流失文物返还提供了绝佳的历史契机。传统上,中国是文物流失大国,不过,随着社会经济的快速发展与文物市场的繁荣,进入21世纪以后,中国逐渐成为世界上主要的文物市场国之一。据联合国教科文组织的统计,中国已于2014年取代美国,成为世界第一大文化财产贸易国,其贸易量占据全球文化财产贸易总量的30%,美国占29%。 在这种情况下,有越来越多的文物通过各种渠道流入中国。这一新情况值得我国立法、执法与司法机关高度重视,并尽快制定应对措施。从司法的角度来看,这为人民法院破解文物追索困境提供了理想条件。从当前形势来看,从境外流入我国的文物主要有两类:第一类为从战乱与动荡地区流入中国的文物。譬如,有资料显示,来自伊拉克、利比亚及叙利亚已经通过各种渠道流入中国文物市场。第二类为原本为非法流失出境的中国文物回流至中国境内。这是因为中国文物近年来在中国市场上的价格已经开始高于国际市场,从而导致不少此类中国文物通过各种途径回流到中国境内。在此背景下,人民法院应该有所作为,择机对具有国际影响的典型性文物归属纠纷行使管辖权,并作出具有标杆性、示范性的判决,扭转文物追索诉讼长期受制于西方文物市场国法院的不利局面,为文物返还开创更加公平正义的国际司法环境。细言之,在现阶段,人民法院可以考虑采取的应对措施包括以下两点:第一,对于源自外国并通过非法渠道流入中国的文物,如果其原属国在中国提起文物追索诉讼,人民法院应当及时行使管辖权,依据对中国与该国均有约束力的国际条约做出公正判决,向国际社会彰显中国严格履行文物返还公约义务的形象,为其他国家树立典范,提高中国司法的国际美誉度。第二,对于原本从中国非法出境回流入境的中国文物,如外国当事方在中国提起追索诉讼,人民法院应积极行使管辖权,依据中国法律以及国际公约,做出公正判决,确立具有国际影响的标杆性判例,从而破解文物追索长期受制于西方文物市场国国内法院的困局。需要指出的是,韩国法院在此方面已经走在我国法院前面,并作出了具有积极意义的判决,颇值我国借鉴。例如,专门盗窃文物的韩国团伙于2012年10月从日本观音寺盗窃两尊金铜观音菩萨像并带入韩国。之后,日本方面向韩国大田地方法院提出诉讼,要求返还。经韩国法院查明,其中一尊菩萨像原本位于位于韩国忠清南道西山的浮石寺,于1370年被倭寇劫掠至日本。鉴此,韩国大田地方法院遂于2016年1月26日一审宣判,韩国团伙从日本盗回的佛像是流失到日本的韩国文物,应归还给韩国浮石寺,不必归还日本。 这一判决得到韩国社会各界以及国际社会的高度评价,极大提高了韩国法院的国际影响力。与韩国相比,我国不论是在流失文物的数量及品质上,还是在国家的国际影响力上均远胜于之。因此,可以预见,一旦未来我国人民法院在涉及重要文物返还的国际纠纷上做出标杆性判决,必然会产生更大的国际影响力。这不仅能改写文物追索诉讼长期受制于西方文物市场国法院的局面,也能够提高我国司法的国际影响力与美誉度,具有深远的历史意义。(三)在“一带一路”倡议框架下,引领协调沿线国共同促进国际规则的改革与完善前已论及,“一带一路”沿线国大多为历史悠久、文物资源丰富的国家,与中国一样,它们也面临着流失文物追索的繁重任务。在这种情况下,中国应当在“一带一路”框架下,联合、引领具有文物追索需求的沿线国,形成合力,谋求文物返还领域国际规则的制定主导权,尝试建立文物返还领域的政府间论坛、会议或国际组织,主导制定更加公平正义的国际规则,改变文物流出国追索文物各自为战的状态,改变该领域国际规则长期由西方文物市场国把控的局面。尤其需要强调的是,从目前来看,我国推行“一带一路”建设,将重点投入经贸合作领域,在文化,特别是文物领域的关注度相对不足。考虑到“一带一路”沿线国大都为文明古国,国民的文化与传统意识浓厚,在“一带一路”框架下及时启动文物保护与流失文物返还的国际合作,可以大大增进我国与沿线国的民心相通,推动“一带一路”建设受到沿线国民众的认可、拥护与支持。从这个意义上说,将文物追索放在“一带一路”倡议背景下运筹,极具必要性与战略性。(四)探索在中国成立解决跨国文物归属纠纷的专门性国际司法机构当前,在解决跨国文物归属纠纷领域,国际上还未建立专门性的国际司法机构,此类纠纷因而大多只能诉诸文物市场国的国内法院。从文物市场国国内法院的司法实践来看,基于这些国家的法律传统与社会经济背景,其国内法院通常将此类纠纷定性为财产或物的所有权纠纷,适用其民商法调整所有权与交易的法律规则,在很大程度上忽视了文物的本质属性。换言之,文物市场国法院将文物归属纠纷定性为普通的财产纠纷,这构成文物追索诉讼难以成功的重要原因。在此背景下,近年来国际上有呼声提出,建立专门解决文物归属纠纷的国际司法机构,以扭转当前文物纠纷普遍被各国法院定性为普通的财产纠纷的局面。然而,由于提出此构想的是西方学者,所以,他们主张在国际司法中心荷兰海牙建立此类国际司法机构。尽管建立以此类专门国际司法机构的主张值得肯定,但选择荷兰的主张并不恰当。首先,荷兰是典型的文物市场国,存在明显的利益偏向,正因为如此,荷兰迄今未加入对文物返还最为有利的“1995年公约”。因此,在该国建立此类司法机构并不合适。其次,中国是世界公认的文明古国、文物资源大国,已经加入文物保护与流失文物返还的所有重要国际公约,在中国建立专门解决文物归属纠纷的国际司法机构因而具有天然优势与合理性。再次,如前所述,进入21世纪以后,中国已经从过去单纯的文物流出国变为兼具文物市场大国与文物资源大国的身份,在这种情况下,在中国建立此类机构,可以较好平衡文物市场国与文物流失国的利益,更其作出的判决也容易被国际社会接受。由此可见,中国是建立此类国际司法机构的理想国家。鉴此,我国最高司法机关可以探索建立专门解决文物归属纠纷的国际司法机构,将中国逐步打造成解决国际文物纠纷的司法中心,提高中国司法的国际影响力,彰显中华文明的国际地位,为实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦发挥积极作用。(五)将对日追索文物提上议事日程并适时推进最后,需要指出,对于中国的文物追索事业而言,对日追索文物是一个需要特别予以考虑的重大问题。目前,我国各界关注的主要是流失欧美的中国文物,而日本侵华期间劫掠文物的返还问题尚未引起我国政府与民间的重视。事实上,日本劫掠的中国文物,无论是在数量上,还是品质上,均远超过欧美国家;抗日战争期间,日本给中国文物造成的破坏,远超过近代以来历次外强发动的侵华战争。历史资料显示,在全面发动侵华战争后,日本当局制定并实施了系统性的劫掠中国文物的政策,对中国文化遗产造成了毁灭性的破坏。据中国政府不完全统计,1945年抗日战争结束后,被日本掠夺的文物共约1879箱,360万件,遭到破坏的文化古迹达741 处。 目前,日本拥有1000余座大小博物馆,共收藏中国历代文物近200万件之多,大多数为日本侵华战争期间被劫掠到日本的,仅东京国立博物馆一家,就藏有中国历代文物珍品9万余件,其中珍品、孤品(南宋著名画家马远的《寒江独钓图》)不计其数,远远超过中国国内的许多博物馆。 此外,大阪市立东洋陶瓷美术馆、大阪市立美术馆、京都泉屋博古馆、藤井有邻馆、根津美术馆等也收藏有大量中国珍贵文物,包括王羲之的《妹至帖》《定武兰亭序》《十七帖》《集王圣教序》等稀世文物珍品。这些被劫掠至日本的中国文物,既是中华民族无法割舍的文物珍宝,也是日本侵略罪行的确切证据。值得强调的是,抗日战争是世界反法西斯战争的有机组成部分。日本掠夺文物和纳粹德国掠夺艺术品均对受害国家和受害者造成重大损害。然而,与日本几乎未对中国归还文物不同,同样作为二战的战败国,德国在战争期间劫掠他国的文物及艺术品在战后得到了系统性返还。此外,作为日本侵略受害国的韩国,通过多年不懈努力,已经较为彻底的解决了日本劫掠朝鲜半岛文物的返还问题。这一状况应当引起我国各界的高度关注与深入思考。当前,中日关系因日本当局试图否认甚至美化侵略历史以及钓鱼岛主权纠纷等原因陷入低谷,在此背景下,对日本侵华期间劫掠中国文物的返还问题进行研究并适时提出,不仅具有重要的理论价值,也是与日本右翼势力进行斗争的手段,符合国家的重大现实需求。需要指出,中国要求日本返还其劫掠文物,并不存在任何法律障碍。有日本学者认为,1972年中日《中日联合声明》载明,“中华人民共和国政府宣布,为了中日两国人民的友谊,放弃对日本国的战争赔偿要求”, 据此,中国政府以丧失了对日文物追索权。 然而,这一观点是站不住脚的。依据《中日联合声明》,中国放弃的政府层面的战争索赔权,并不影响中国民间的对日索赔;同时,政府层面的战争索赔是指中国政府要求日本政府对发动侵略战争给中国造成的损害进行经济赔偿,而要求日本返还其掠夺的文物则是原物返还请求权,两者完全是两种性质不同的权利。因此,《中日联合声明》关于中国政府放弃对对日本国的战争赔偿,并不影响中国要求日本返还其在战争期间暴力掠夺的中国文物。由此可见,中国要求日本返还其在侵华期间劫掠的中国文物并不存在任何法律障碍。不仅如此,日本暴力掠夺的不计其数的中国珍贵文物,是中华民族屈辱近代史的见证者,也是日本侵略期间犯下滔天罪行的铁证。在此背景下,积极推动日掠文物的返还,不仅是中华民族不容剥夺的权利,也是与日本右翼势力否认历史的丑恶行径展开斗争的有力武器。所以,对日追索侵华战争期间劫掠的中国文物,中国占据有利的国际道义、舆论优势,一旦提出,必将成为对日外交中有利于我方、不利于日方的一着棋局。鉴此,应当将对日追索文物纳入议事日程,并在对日外交的整体框架下予以运筹与推进。(六)尽快启动文物返还案例研究,为制定文物追索战略与策略提供理论基础20世纪下半叶以来,尤其是近30年来,随着国际政治、经济格局的改变与国际法律环境的演进,在文物流失国的不懈努力下,出现了越来越多的成功索回文物的案例。从国别来看,这些案例主要集中在作为文物市场国的欧美国家,尤其是美国、英国、德国与法国等,并呈现出逐渐扩展之势;从成功索回的途径来看,既有诉讼,也有捐赠、购买、协商与谈判、仲裁以及第三方斡旋等,文物归属纠纷的多元化解决机制初现端倪。对这些文物追索案例进行系统梳理与深入研究意义重大。首先,与其他文物流失国一样,中国流失到境外的文物亦主要集中在欧美文物市场国。对这些国家现有的返还文物案例进行分析与研究,不仅可以了解这些国家在该领域的立法与司法实践,还可以掌握这些国家在面对外国提出文物返还请求时,其相关政府部门的运作机制,这是我国研判在文物市场国追索文物应采取什么途径以及制定系统性的文物追索战略的基础。其次,对这些文物返还案例进行分国别、分途径的归类研究有助于我国今后处理文物追索的个案时,视文物所在国的具体国别与具体案情制订有针对性的追索策略与工作方案。尤需强调,由于英、美两大文物市场国均为普通法系国家,依据“因循先例”(stare decisis)原则,现有的判例对其司法机关未来处理类似的文物归属纠纷具有约束力,对这两个国家的文物返还案例进行梳理研究的重要性自不待言。再次,这一研究有助于我国向其他文物流出国汲取成功经验、殷鉴失败教训,有利于我国以更加有力、有效的方式推进文物追索工作。此外,对其他文物流失国追索文物展开实证分析也有助于我国在充分了解其文物追索实践的基础上加强与这些国家的合作与交流,共同推动该领域国际法律秩序的改革与完善,从而为文物追索创造更加公平、正义的国际法律环境。尾论早日让章公祖师肉身坐佛回家,是阳春村村民和亿万中国民众的共同期盼。到本文完成时,距离荷兰法院就追索该坐佛的民事诉讼举行的首次法庭听证又过了3个月。然而,经多方求证,依然没有任何新的进展。可以预见,未来荷兰法院在此案上采取的一举一动,都将引发中国乃至国际社会的高度关注。流失文物追索之难、跨国诉讼之漫长、文物返还之重要,由此可见一斑。从这个意义上说,由这座肉身坐佛追索案引发的关注与思考,在现阶段还不能划上句号。对于本案的后续发展,理论与实务界需要持续关注;对于中国追索文物的正义事业,更需要社会各界的共同努力与协力推进。(责任编辑:李晓果)文章来源:原文刊发于《法律适用.司法案例》2017年第20期,引用请参照原文。

yi zhang gong zu shi rou shen zuo fu zhui suo an wei chu fa dian, ben wen fen xi le wen wu liu shi de li shi gen yuan yu xian shi bei jing, shu li chu wen wu zhui suo mian dui de nan ti, zai ci ji chu shang, ti chu po jie wen wu zhui suo kun jing de zhong guo fang an: wan shan guo nei fa lv ti xi, gu li ren min fa yuan xing shi guo ji min shi shen pan quan zai" yi dai yi lu" chang yi xia yin ling xie tiao yan xian guo gai ge guo ji gui ze tan suo zai hua cheng li zhuan men xing guo ji si fa ji gou jiang dui ri zhui suo wen wu ti shang yi shi ri cheng bing shi shi tui jin jin kuai qi dong xiang guan an li yan jiu, wei zhi ding wen wu zhui suo zhan lue yu ce lue ti gong li lun ji chu. yi yin yan 2015 nian 3 yue, fu jian san ming da tian xian wu shan xiang yang chun cun 20 nian qian shi qie de zhang gong zu shi rou shen zuo fu zai xiong ya li zhan chu. xiao xi chuan chu, ju guo zhen jing. zi ci yi hou, ru he rang zuo fu zao ri hui jia, cheng wei quan ti zhong guo ren de xin yuan yu she hui ge jie guan zhu de re dian wen ti. ran er, zhui suo zhi lu man chang er jian nan, zhi dao 2017 nian 7 yue 14 ri, he lan a mu si te dan di qu fa yuan cai jin xing le shou chang fa ting ting zheng, qie qi jin wei dui ren he shi xiang zuo chu cai jue. dang di cun min jiao ji wan fen, min zhong ye zhu jian shi qu nai xin. yue lai yue duo de ren gan dao kun huo: zai zhong guo guo li yu ying xiang li kong qian qiang da di dang xia, yi jian you zheng ju zheng ming wei bei dao yu zhong guo de wen wu, zhui suo qi lai wei he hui ju bu wei jian? shi shi shang, fang yan shi jie, ke yi fa xian, zhang gong zu shi rou shen zuo fu zhui suo an ji ju dai biao xing yu yang ben xing, bao kuo ai ji xi la jian pu zhai zai nei de ge wen wu liu shi guo zhui suo liu shi hai wai de wen wu, mo bu mian lin chong chong kun nan. ke yi zhe yang shuo, zuo wei zhong guo zhu dong zai hai wai ti qi de wen wu zhui suo di yi an, zhang gong zu shi rou shen zuo fu zhui suo an shen ke zhe she chu bao kuo zhong guo zai nei de wen wu liu shi guo zhui suo hai wai liu shi wen wu suo chu de kun jing yi ji po jie kun ju de zhong yao xing yu jin po xing. xu yao qiang diao de shi, zai dang jin ge wen wu liu shi guo zhong, chu zhong guo wai, da du wei zong he guo li jiao ruo de fa zhan zhong guo jia, cong zhe ge yi yi shang shuo, po jie zhui suo liu shi wen wu de kun ju, wei zhui suo liu shi wen wu gong xian zhong guo zhi hui ti chu zhong guo fang an, shi zhong guo zuo wei wen ming gu guo yu jue qi zhong da guo ying fu de guo ji ze ren yu li shi dan dang. yu ci tong shi, wo guo mu qian zheng zai da li tui jin" yi dai yi lu" chang yi, er yan xian guo da du wei li shi you jiu wen wu zi yuan feng fu de guo jia, shi jie shang zui zhu yao de wen wu liu shi guo yin er da duo ji zhong yu ci. zhi shi zhi gu, zhong guo dui zhui suo liu shi wen wu gong xian li liang fa hui zuo yong, bu jin shi guan bu ji qi shu de fei fa liu shi hai wai de zhong guo wen wu de ming yun, er qie you li yu zeng qiang" yi dai yi lu" yan xian guo de xiang xin li yu ning ju li, gao du qi he guo jia de zhan lue xu qiu. you ci ke jian, yi zhang gong zu shi rou shen zuo fu zhui suo an wei qi ji, jia qiang zhen dui hai wai liu shi wen wu de li lun yan jiu, ti chu po jie nan ti de zhong guo fang an shi yi xiang ji ju po qie xian shi yi yi, you ju zhong da zhan lue jia zhi de ren wu. er zhui suo liu shi wen wu de xian zhuang yu nan ti yi wen wu liu shi de li shi gen yuan yu xian shi bei jing wen wu de liu shi ju you fu za de li shi gen yuan yu xian shi bei jing. yi wen wu de shi jiao lai kan, shi jie ke fen wei wen wu liu chu guo wen wu yuan shu guo yu wen wu liu ru guo wen wu shi chang guo liang lei. qian zhe zhu yao shi zhi li shi you jiu gu dai wen ming can lan de guo jia, duo ji zhong yu ya zhou zhong dong bei fei nan ou yi ji zhong mei zhou, dang qian duo shu fa zhan zhong guo jia hou zhe zhu yao shi xi fang fa da guo jia. cong li shi gen yuan shang kan, jin dai yi lai, sui zhao di li da fa xian ji gong ye ge ming de wan cheng, xi fang lie qiang de jian chuan li jian heng quan qiu, ya zhou fei zhou ji mei zhou de da pian di qu lun wei xi fang de zhi min di huo fu yong. zai cong lin gui ze zhi xia, zhei xie di qu de da liang cai fu, bao kuo ceng jian zheng qi gu lao can lan wen ming de wen wu, yuan yuan bu duan de liu xiang xi fang. zai ci li shi jie duan, ya fei la di qu de da liang wen wu yin zhan zheng zhi min dong luan pin kun bao hu yu guan kong que shi deng yuan yin liu shi zhi xi fang guo jia. zhong guo da gui mo de wen wu liu shi ye zhao shi yu gai li shi shi qi. zhe zhong shi jie fan wei nei de wen wu" xi xiang hui ju qu shi" zai 19 shi ji mo zhi 20 shi ji chu da dao dian feng. suo yi, cong li shi gen yuan kan, wen wu liu shi shi xi fang qin lue zhi min tong zhi yu bao li lue duo de chan wu, jian zheng le bao kuo zhong guo zai nei de ge wen wu liu shi guo de qu ru shi. jin er yan zhi, you yu xu duo wen wu xi zhi min shi qi you xi fang lie qiang cong ya fei la di qu jie lue er de, yin ci, ta men de gui shu shou dao fu za de zheng zhi li shi wen hua yu min zu qing gan deng yin su de ji ban. zhi shi zhi gu, yin liu shi wen wu gui shu er yin fa de guo ji jiu fen, yuan fei chun cui de cai chan quan yi zhi zheng, qi qian she de ge fang li yi xi yin de guo ji guan zhu qian dong de ge guo shen jing, shi qi ta ren he yi zhong cai chan jiu fen wu fa bi ni de. chu li shi shang bei xi fang yi bao li fang shi zao cheng de wen wu liu shi yi wai, zai xin de guo ji huan jing xia, dao qie dao jue yu zou si yi jing xun su shang sheng wei wen wu liu shi de zhu yao zhao yin. er zhan jie shu yi lai, he ping fa zhan cheng wei guo ji da shi, da gui mo de guo ji zhan zheng de yi bi mian, wu zhuang chong tu yin er bu zai cheng wei wen hua cai chan shou dao po huai de shou yao yuan yin. ran er, jin ji shi nian lai, guo ji shi chang shang wen hua cai chan de jia ge biao zhang, zhe zhi jie dao zhi wen hua cai chan fan yun de fan lan yu wen wu hei shi de huo bao. zai bao li de you huo xia, da liang fan zui fen zi ting er zou xian, dao qie dao jue zou si deng wen hua cai chan fan zui sui jin ru gao fa qi. ju guo ji quan wei ji gou tong ji, jin ru 20 shi ji 90 nian dai yi hou, kua guo jian de wen hua cai chan hei shi jiao yi yi jing cheng wei li run zui feng hou de fei fa mao yi zhi yi, bing yu jun huo ji du pin zou si bing cheng wei dang dai san da fei fa guo ji mao yi. hai xu qiang diao, jin guan zi er zhan jie shu yi lai, ren lei she hui zheng ti shang chu yu he ping zhi zhong, wen hua cai chan mei you zao shou quan ju xing xi tong xing de po huai, dan bu shi bao fa de di qu xing wu zhuang chong tu yu zhan luan hai shi gei wen hua cai chan de an quan meng shang le yin ying, bing zhi jie dao zhi wen wu fan yun zai mou xie di qu mou xie jie duan cheng shi kong zhi shi. pi ru, 21 shi ji yi lai bao fa de di er ci yi la ke zhan zheng a fu han zhan zheng yi ji li bi ya ai ji deng guo de nei luan gei zhei xie di qu de wen hua cai chan zao cheng liao wu fa wan hui de zhong da sun shi, bing dao zhi yuan zi ci deng qu yu de da liang wen wu liu ru guo ji hei shi 2014 nian yi lai, shi li ji ju kuo zhang de ji duan zong jiao zu zhi" yi si lan guo" da si po huai wen hua cai chan, wu shu zhen gui wen wu can zao mie ding zhi zai bu jin ru ci, fan mai wen wu suo huo de de ju e li yi yi jing cheng wei gai zu zhi de zhu yao cai yuan zhi yi. ru he zai xin de guo ji huan jing xia you xiao bao hu wen hua cai chan da ji wen wu cai chan fan yun, sui cheng wei dang dai guo ji she hui ji dai jie jue de zhong da ke ti. zhen dui ge guo yin wen wu gui shu gui shu er xian qi de wai jiao fen zheng, mei guo xue zhe zhan mu si ku nuo James Cuno yu 2014 nian di zai wai jiao za zhi shang zhuan wen, jiang zhi ti sheng dao" wen hua zhan zheng" de gao du. hai you xue zhe ze cong jian she xing de jiao du ti chu," wen hua wai jiao" yi jing cheng wei dang xia ge guo xin de wai jiao zhuo li dian, bing po you jian di de zhi chu:" zai quan qiu hua shi dai, wen hua ye shi yi zhong ying tong huo." zong shang ke jian, wen wu liu shi ji you qi li shi gen yuan, ye you fu za de xian shi yuan yin, zhui suo fei fa lv liu shi wen wu, yin er shi yi xiang xu yao fang zai li shi wei du yu guo ji shi ye xia kao liang de zhong da ren wu. er zhui suo liu shi wen wu de nan ti 20 shi ji zhong qi yi lai, zhi min ti xi tu beng wa jie, ya fei la di qu de min zu lu xu bai tuo xi fang kong zhi, ji er zou shang du li fu qiang zhi lu. sui zhe fa zhan zhong guo jia wen hua zhu quan yi shi min zu zi xin xin yu guo li de ti gao, zhui suo fei fa liu shi hai wai wen wu de hu sheng yu jia gao zhang. bao kuo xi la ai ji tu er qi han guo ji mo xi ge zai nei de wen wu liu shi guo tong guo wai jiao si fa min jian deng duo zhong tu jing ji ji xiang wen wu liu ru guo zhui suo wen wu, bing qu de le ji ji jin zhan. jin guan ru ci, yu quan qiu fan wei nei liu shi hai wai wen wu de tian wen shu liang xiang bi, zhei xie cheng gong suo hui de an li suo zhan de bi li cheng de shang wei hu qi wei. cong mu qian lai kan, wu lun shi li shi shang yin zhan zheng huo zhi min tong zhi er liu shi de wen wu, hai shi dang dai yin dao jue zou si deng yuan yin liu shi de wen wu, jue da duo shu yi ran liu zai wen wu liu ru guo de bo wu guan huo si ren shou zhong. wen wu liu chu guo de wen wu zhui suo de zheng yi shi ye zai zheng ti shang chu yu ju bu wei jian de kun jing zhi zhong. zao cheng zhe yi xian zhuang de yuan yin shi duo fang mian di, gai yan zhi, zhui suo hai wai liu shi wen wu de zhu yao nan ti ke yi gui jie wei yi xia ji ge fang mian. di yi, xian you guo ji gong yue wu su ji li, yue shu li jiao ruo. er zhan jie shu yi hou, guo ji she hui zai bao hu wen wu cu jin liu shi wen wu ling fan huan yu lu xu zhi ding le yi xie guo ji gong yue, zhu yao bao kuo: guan yu fa sheng wu zhuang chong tu qing kuang xia bao hu wen hua cai chan de gong yue jian cheng" 1954 nian hai ya gong yue" ji qi yi ding shu 1970 nian lian he guo jiao ke wen zu zhi zhi ding de guan yu jin zhi he fang zhi fei fa jin chu kou wen hua cai chan he fei fa zhuan rang qi suo you quan de fang fa de gong yue jian cheng" 1970 nian gong yue" yu 1995 nian guo ji tong yi si fa xie hui guan yu bei dao huo zhe fei fa chu kou wen wu de gong yue jian cheng" 1995 nian gong yue" deng. zhei xie guo ji gong yue wei bao hu wen wu mian shou zhan zheng dao qie dao jue zou si yu fan yun zhi hai yi ji yuan shu guo zhui suo fei fa liu shi zhi wen hua cai chan ran qi le xi wang, ta men de zhi ding yu shi shi, biao zhi zhe geng jia gong ping zheng yi de guo ji wen wu fa lv ti xi chu ju duan ni. ran er, guo ji tiao yue de shi ji xiao yong bing bu neng bei gao gu, li yong ji you guo ji gong yue zhui suo wen wu zhu yao mian lin tiao yue wu su ji li yue shu li you xian deng nan ti. shou xian, yi ju guo ji fa de ji ben yuan ze, guo ji gong yue zhi dui di yue guo you xiao, er zuo wei zhu yao wen wu liu shi mu di guo de ou mei fa da guo jia, duo chu yu zi shen li yi de kao liang, bu yuan jia ru guan yu wen wu zhui suo de guo ji gong yue, chang qi you li zai gong yue ti xi zhi wai, zhe dao zhi xian cun guo ji gong yue de shi ji yue shu li da da zhe kou. li ru, jie zhi 2017 nian 10 yue, jin you 37 ge guo jia jia ru le dui yu wen wu liu shi guo zhui suo wen wu zui wei you li de" 1995 nian gong yue", qie zhe 37 ge guo jia ji hu wei qing yi se de wen wu liu shi guo. qi ci, xian cun guo ji gong yue wu su ji li, gu wu fa shi yong yu gong yue sheng xiao qian bei dao huo fei fa chu kou de wen wu. you yu wo guo da liang zhen gui wen wu shi zai qing mo zhi zhi jian guo qian de zhan luan zhong liu shi hai wai de, suo yi, dui zhe bu fen wen wu, wo guo wu fa yi tuo xian cun guo ji gong yue yao qiu fan huan. yu wo guo yi yang, qi ta da duo shu wen wu liu shi guo ye mian lin zhe tong yang de wen ti. yi zhang gong zu shi rou shen zuo fu zhui suo an wei li, zhong guo sui tong shi wei" 1970 nian gong yue" yu" 1995 nian gong yue" di yue guo, dan jian yu he lan de di yue qing kuang, wo fang wu fa yi ju zhe liang ge gong yue yao qiu he lan fang mian fan huan bei dao wen wu. shou xian, he lan sui yu 1996 nian qian shu" 1995 nian gong yue", dan qi yi hui qi jin wei pi zhun jia ru, gu gai gong yue dui he lan wu yue shu li. qi ci, he lan yu zhong guo sui jun wei" 1970 nian gong yue" di yue guo, dan jia ru gong yue de shi jian bu tong, zhong guo yu 1989 nian jia ru gong yue, er he lan zhi dao 2009 nian cai shou gong yue yue shu. xian you zheng ju biao ming, ben an suo she fo xiang yu 1995 nian zi wo guo xiang gang di qu ru jing he lan, yi ju guo ji fa shang" fa bu su ji ji wang" de yuan ze ji wei ye na tiao yue fa gong yue guan yu" tiao yue bu su ji ji wang" de gui ding," 1970 nian gong yue" bu neng su ji ji wang de shi yong yu 1995 nian zuo you ru jing he lan de wen wu. zai zhe zhong qing kuang xia, jiu bu nan li jie, shuang fang zheng fu jian jiu ben an de hu dong yu he zuo yuan he hui zhu jian ting zhi. shi shi shang, zheng shi you yu que xin bu cun zai ke shi yong de guo ji gong yue, he lan cang jia de tai du cai ri qu qiang ying, gai bian le qi zui chu yuan yi cu cheng fan huan de biao tai, bu duan de man tian yao jia, shen zhi zai bei su zhi fa yuan hou yi ran li chang wan gu, bu yuan yi yu cun min zhan kai tan pan. kua guo wen wu zhui suo shi yong guo ji tiao yue zhi nan, you ci ke jian yi ban. di er, zhi ding guo ji gui ze de zhu dao quan you xi fang wen wu shi chang guo zhang wo. ji bian zai you guo ji tiao yue ke yi yuan yin de qing kuang xia, wen wu liu shi guo zhui suo wen wu yi ran mian lin zhu duo kun nan. zhe shi yin wei zai zhei xie guo ji gong yue de zhi ding guo cheng zhong, wen wu shi chang guo, you qi shi yi mei guo wei dai biao de ou mei da guo ping jie qi qiang da de guo jia shi li yu guo ji ying xiang li, zhu dao le di yue guo cheng, dao zhi gong yue yue wen ming xian pian xiang wei hu wen wu shi chang guo de ji de li yi, zai hen da cheng du shang xi sheng le wen wu liu shi guo de zheng dang xu qiu. yi dang qian wen wu fan huan ling yu ying xiang zui da de" 1970 nian gong yue" wei li. ke guan er yan, zai guo ji she hui fen lie cheng wen wu zi yuan guo yu wen wu shi chang guo de li shi bei jing xia," 1970 nian gong yue" zui da xian du de mi he le liang da li yi ji tuan de fen qi, wei bao hu wen hua cai chan da ji wen hua cai chan fan yun cu jin liu shi wen wu fan huan zhi ding le zui di xian du de gui ze, zai guo ji li fa shi shang liu xia le li shi xing yin ji jin guan ru ci, xu yao zhi chu de shi, you yu di yue guo cheng shou dao mei guo deng wen wu shi chang da guo de zhu dao, gai gong yue de bu shao tiao kuan, you qi shi he xin tiao kuan zai hen da cheng du shang xi sheng le wen wu liu chu guo de li yi, yin er cun zai yan zhong de nei sheng xing que xian. cong zhe ge yi yi shang shuo, zhi you wen wu liu chu guo yu wen wu shi chang guo de guo jia shi li zai zheng ti shang fa sheng li shi xing ni zhuan, guo ji fa gui ze de zhu dao quan bu zai bei wen wu shi chang guo long duan zhi hou, guo ji fa gui ze cai neng xiang zhe geng jia gong ping zheng yi geng jia you li yu liu shi wen wu fan huan de fang xiang yan jin. huan yan zhi, xian you de guo ji gui ze shi you ou mei wen wu shi chang da guo zhu dao zhi ding de, ming xian bu li yu wen wu liu chu guo zhui suo wen wu, zhe shi zao cheng wen wu zhui suo ju bu wei jian de zhong yao yuan yin. di san, wen wu zhui suo shou zhi yu xi fang wen wu shi chang guo de guo nei fa ji qi fa yuan. cong dang qian wen wu zhui suo de shi jian lai kan, tong guo si fa tu jing zhui suo liu shi wen wu yi ban wei wen wu liu shi guo huo qi ji gou yu gong min zai wen wu xian suo zai di guo, ji wen wu liu ru guo de guo nei fa yuan ti qi su song. zai ci bei jing zhi xia, wen wu shi fou neng gou fan huan, zi ran zhu yao qu jue yu wen wu shi chang guo de guo nei fa ji qi fa guan dui wen wu fan huan suo chi de li chang. huan yan zhi, dang qian de shi jian biao ming, wen wu liu chu guo tong guo si fa tu jing zhui suo qi liu shi jing wai de wen wu, tong chang xu yao zai wen wu shi chang guo de fa yuan qi su, su song xu shou wen wu shi chang guo guo nei fa de zhi pei. zai ci bei jing xia, wen wu zhui suo su song kun nan chong chong, zi ran nan yi bi mian. hai shi yi zhang gong zu shi rou shen zuo fu zhui suo an wei li, yang chun cun cun min yao da ying zhe chang su song, xu ke fu he lan fa shang de chong chong zhang ai, bao kuo su song zhu ti zi ge shan yi qu de qu de shi xiao biao di wu de ding xing deng. xu yao zhi chu de shi, dui yu kua guo wen wu su song er yan, shi yong wen wu xian chi you ren suo zai guo de fa lv, ming xian dui wen wu yuan suo you ren bu li. pi ru, zai di yi ci fa ting ting zheng shang, cun min wei yuan hui shi fou shi shi ge de su song zhu ti cheng wei jiao dian wen ti, zhe shi yin wei cun min wei yuan hui shi yi ju zhong guo fa cheng li de zu zhi, yi ju zhong guo fa xiang you su song zhu ti zi ge. dan shi, he lan fa shang bing wu cun min wei yuan hui, bei gao yin er ti chu, fa ting ying yi ju he lan fa cai ding yuan gao zhu ti zi ge bu shi ge, bo hui su song. dui yu yang chun cun chu min er yan, zhe xian ran gou cheng fa lv shang de zhong da bu que ding yin su, zhang gong zu shi rou shen zuo fu shi fou neng shun li fan huan de qian jing yin er zhi de dan you. you ci ke jian, tong guo si fa tu jing zhui suo wen wu shi shi shang shou zhi yu wen wu shi chang guo de guo nei fa yu guo nei fa yuan, zhe yi zhuang kuang dui wen wu yuan shu guo ming xian bu gong. zhi yao zhe yi ju mian de bu dao gai bian, wen wu zhui suo jiu shi zhong hui chong man kun nan yu bu que ding xing. di si, wen wu liu shi guo dan da du zou, er wen wu shi chang guo yi xing cheng" lian meng". 20 shi ji 70 nian dai yi lai, sui zhe ya fei la fa zhan zhong guo jia min zu yi shi de gao zhang, yue lai yue duo de wen wu liu chu guo gao qing fa lv yu dao yi de qi zhi, ji ji xiang xi fang wen wu shi chang guo zhui suo liu shi wen wu, you qi shi guo bao ji wen wu. jin guan ru ci, zhei xie guo jia de wen wu zhui suo reng chu yu dan da du zou de zhuang tai, chi chi mei you xing cheng he li. yu ci bu tong, mian dui zhe wen wu liu shi guo yu jia zhu dong de zhui suo liu shi wen wu, wen wu shi chang guo, you qi shi ou mei zhu yao wen wu shi chang guo, yi jing kai shi jian li" lian meng", jie zhu lian he de li liang tong guo ge zhong tu jing ji ti fa sheng, yi di kang wen wu liu chu guo de zhui suo yao qiu. 2002 nian 12 yue, xi fang duo jia zhu ming bo wu guan lian shou fa bu de huan qiu bo wu guan jia zhi xuan yan ji wei dian xing li zheng. gai xuan yan ti chu" wen wu de guo ji zhu yi", xuan cheng ren lei yong you gong tong de zu xian, ge min zu de li shi shi xiang hu ying xiang xiang hu rong he de zheng ti, wu fa bi ci ge lie zuo wei wen ming de zai ti, wen wu yin er gou cheng ren lei de gong tong cai fu er bu neng you mou ge guo jia huo min zu du xiang. zai ci li nian zhi xia, xuan yan zhi chu," huan qiu bo wu guan" zao qi yi ge zhong fang shi huo de de ta guo wen wu, yi jing gou cheng zhei xie bo wu guan de yi bu fen, bing you ci gou cheng qi suo zai guo wen hua yi chan de yi bu fen. gai xuan yan hai ren wei, yu yi ban yi yi shang de bo wu guan bu tong, huan qiu bo wu guan hao si" bai ke quan shu shi de" bo wu guan, zhi zai xiang can guan zhe ti gong yi ge can guan jian shang bi jiao quan ren lei ge zhong wen ming yu wen hua cheng guo de ping tai. yin ci, you huan qiu bo wu guan ji xu chi you zhan lan shou cang zhei xie wen hua cai chan fu he ge guo ren min de li yi. huan qiu bo wu guan jia zhi xuan yan fa bu hou, zai guo ji she hui chan sheng hen da ying xiang, qi biao bang de wen wu" guo ji zhu yi" yi cheng wei xi fang wen wu shi chang guo ju jue fan huan liu shi wen wu suo gong tong bing chi de jia zhi li nian. you ci ke jian, wen wu liu chu guo sui ran shu liang zhong duo, dan zhei xie guo jia zai wen wu zhui suo fang mian shi zhong chu yu ge zi wei zhan de zhuang tai, mei you xing cheng xie zuo guan xi, mei you xing cheng he li yu ci xiang dui, wen wu shi chang guo yi jing jie cheng" lian meng", shi tu yi ji ti de li liang yu sheng yin di zhi wen wu liu shi guo zhui suo wen wu de yao qiu. zhe yi zhuang kuang ye shi zao cheng wen wu zhui suo shi ye zai zheng ti shang tui jin huan man de zhong yao yuan yin. yi qian shu wen wu liu shi de li shi bei jing yu wen wu zhui suo de xian shi kun jing wei ji chu, jie xia lai, ben wen li zu zhong guo, xiong huai shi jie, ti chu po jie liu shi wen wu zhui suo kun jing de zhong guo fang an. san po jie wen wu zhui suo kun jing de zhong guo fang an yi wan shan guo nei li fa yu si fa jie shi, wei zhong guo zhu dong zhui suo wen wu chuang zao you li de fa lv huan jing ru qian suo shu, zai zhang gong zu shi rou shen zuo fu zhui suo an zhong, ti qi su song de yuan gao shi yang chun cun cun min wei yuan hui, zhe zhu yao yin wei zhe zuo zuo fu bing fei guo you wen wu, er shi ji ti suo you de wen wu. ran er, yi ju wo guo wen wu bao hu fa di 5 tiao, zhong guo jing nei di xia nei shui he ling hai zhong yi cun de yi qie wen wu, shu yu guo jia suo you gu wen hua yi zhi gu mu zang shi ku si shu yu guo jia suo you. ke jian, zai wo guo, jue da duo shu wen wu shu yu guo you wen wu, jue da duo shu liu shi hai wai de wen wu yin er ye shu yu guo you wen wu. zai ci bei jing xia, zhui suo liu shi hai wai de zhong guo wen wu, bi xu you guo jia fa hui zhu dao zuo yong cai neng shi xian tu po. jian ci, wo guo zai xiu ding wen wu bao hu fa min shi su song fa deng fa lv shi, ying gai dui guo jia ti qi wen wu zhui suo su song de wen ti jin xing ding ceng she ji, ming que yi guo jia ming yi zhui suo liu shi wen wu de zhu ti cheng xu guo ji he zuo deng shi xiang, bi yao shi ke yi zhi ding zhuan men de hai wai liu shi wen wu zhui suo fa, wei liu shi wen wu zhui suo ti gong qiang da de fa zhi li liang. ci wai, zui gao ren min fa yuan ke yi kao lv tong guo zhi ding huo wan shan xiang guan si fa jie shi, wei wen wu zhui suo su song zhi ding ju you cao zuo xing de gui ze, wei guo jia xing shi liu shi wen wu zhui suo quan da po wen wu zhui suo de kun jing chuang zao you li de si fa zhi du yu huan jing, wei wei hu guo jia li yi, shi xian liu shi wen wu hui gui ti gong si fa hu hang. er ren min fa yuan ji ji xing shi guo ji min shi shen pan quan, zuo chu biao gan xing pan li, shu li zhong guo si fa zai wen wu fan huan ling yu de guo ji ying xiang li wen wu zhui suo shi yi xiang xi tong gong cheng, xu yao guo jia li fa zhi fa si fa deng ge ge bu men fa hui zuo yong, xiang hu cu jin, xiang hu pei he. xu yao zhi chu de shi, da po wen wu zhui suo de kun jing, ren min fa yuan ju you bu ke ti dai de zhong yao zuo yong, zhe shi you ren min fa yuan de gong neng yu zhong guo dang qian suo chu de guo ji huan jing suo jue ding de. shou xian, you yu si fa ji guan du li xing shi shen pan quan shi bao kuo zhong guo zai nei di dang dai ge guo pu bian zun xun de ji ben yuan ze, yu guo jia de xing zheng ji guan xiang bi, ren min fa yuan tong guo xing shi si fa shen pan quan you qi shi min shang shi shen pan quan chu li she ji guo jia quan yi de shi xiang ju you tian ran de xiang dui du li xing yu wen he xing, qi yi shi xing tai yu zheng zhi se cai geng wei dan hua, ye geng rong yi bei guo ji she hui suo jie shou. ke jian, you ren min fa yuan tong guo fa hui kua guo si fa zhi li quan jie jue she ji guo jia zhong da li yi de shi xiang, ju you du te de you shi, ke yi chan sheng geng li xiang de guo ji xiao guo. zai zhe zhong qing kuang xia, dui yu guo ji min gan du jiao gao de kua guo wen wu gui shu zheng yi, you ren min fa yuan tong guo xing shi guo ji min shi shen pan quan jie jue zhi, ke yi zui xiao de guo jia cheng ben zhu zhang wo guo quan yi, xian shi wo guo li chang, bing wei jin hou tong guo bao kuo fa lv tu jing zai nei de qi ta tu jing jie jue zheng duan ji lei guo jia shi jian yu zheng ju yi yi shang de you li xian li, cong er wei tui jin quan qiu zhi li ji zhi xiang geng jia gong zheng he li de fang xiang fa zhan, wei wo guo fa zhan he shi jie he ping chuang zao geng jia you li de tiao jian. qi ci, zhong guo yi jing cong guo qu dan chun de wen wu liu chu guo bian wei jian ju wen wu shi chang da guo yu wen wu zi yuan da guo de shuang chong shen fen, zhe yi te shu li shi bei jing wei ren min fa yuan tong guo xing shi guo ji min shi shen pan quan que li biao gan xing pan li, cu jin liu shi wen wu fan huan ti gong le jue jia de li shi qi ji. chuan tong shang, zhong guo shi wen wu liu shi da guo, bu guo, sui zhe she hui jing ji de kuai su fa zhan yu wen wu shi chang de fan rong, jin ru 21 shi ji yi hou, zhong guo zhu jian cheng wei shi jie shang zhu yao de wen wu shi chang guo zhi yi. ju lian he guo jiao ke wen zu zhi de tong ji, zhong guo yi yu 2014 nian qu dai mei guo, cheng wei shi jie di yi da wen hua cai chan mao yi guo, qi mao yi liang zhan ju quan qiu wen hua cai chan mao yi zong liang de 30, mei guo zhan 29. zai zhe zhong qing kuang xia, you yue lai yue duo de wen wu tong guo ge zhong qu dao liu ru zhong guo. zhe yi xin qing kuang zhi de wo guo li fa zhi fa yu si fa ji guan gao du zhong shi, bing jin kuai zhi ding ying dui cuo shi. cong si fa de jiao du lai kan, zhe wei ren min fa yuan po jie wen wu zhui suo kun jing ti gong le li xiang tiao jian. cong dang qian xing shi lai kan, cong jing wai liu ru wo guo de wen wu zhu yao you liang lei: di yi lei wei cong zhan luan yu dong dang di qu liu ru zhong guo de wen wu. pi ru, you zi liao xian shi, lai zi yi la ke li bi ya ji xu li ya yi jing tong guo ge zhong qu dao liu ru zhong guo wen wu shi chang. di er lei wei yuan ben wei fei fa liu shi chu jing de zhong guo wen wu hui liu zhi zhong guo jing nei. zhe shi yin wei zhong guo wen wu jin nian lai zai zhong guo shi chang shang de jia ge yi jing kai shi gao yu guo ji shi chang, cong er dao zhi bu shao ci lei zhong guo wen wu tong guo ge zhong tu jing hui liu dao zhong guo jing nei. zai ci bei jing xia, ren min fa yuan ying gai you suo zuo wei, ze ji dui ju you guo ji ying xiang de dian xing xing wen wu gui shu jiu fen xing shi guan xia quan, bing zuo chu ju you biao gan xing shi fan xing de pan jue, niu zhuai wen wu zhui suo su song chang qi shou zhi yu xi fang wen wu shi chang guo fa yuan de bu li ju mian, wei wen wu fan huan kai chuang geng jia gong ping zheng yi de guo ji si fa huan jing. xi yan zhi, zai xian jie duan, ren min fa yuan ke yi kao lv cai qu de ying dui cuo shi bao kuo yi xia liang dian: di yi, dui yu yuan zi wai guo bing tong guo fei fa qu dao liu ru zhong guo de wen wu, ru guo qi yuan shu guo zai zhong guo ti qi wen wu zhui suo su song, ren min fa yuan ying dang ji shi xing shi guan xia quan, yi ju dui zhong guo yu gai guo jun you yue shu li de guo ji tiao yue zuo chu gong zheng pan jue, xiang guo ji she hui zhang xian zhong guo yan ge lv xing wen wu fan huan gong yue yi wu de xing xiang, wei qi ta guo jia shu li dian fan, ti gao zhong guo si fa de guo ji mei yu du. di er, dui yu yuan ben cong zhong guo fei fa chu jing hui liu ru jing de zhong guo wen wu, ru wai guo dang shi fang zai zhong guo ti qi zhui suo su song, ren min fa yuan ying ji ji xing shi guan xia quan, yi ju zhong guo fa lv yi ji guo ji gong yue, zuo chu gong zheng pan jue, que li ju you guo ji ying xiang de biao gan xing pan li, cong er po jie wen wu zhui suo chang qi shou zhi yu xi fang wen wu shi chang guo guo nei fa yuan de kun ju. xu yao zhi chu de shi, han guo fa yuan zai ci fang mian yi jing zou zai wo guo fa yuan qian mian, bing zuo chu le ju you ji ji yi yi de pan jue, po zhi wo guo jie jian. li ru, zhuan men dao qie wen wu de han guo tuan huo yu 2012 nian 10 yue cong ri ben guan yin si dao qie liang zun jin tong guan yin pu sa xiang bing dai ru han guo. zhi hou, ri ben fang mian xiang han guo da tian di fang fa yuan ti chu su song, yao qiu fan huan. jing han guo fa yuan cha ming, qi zhong yi zun pu sa xiang yuan ben wei yu wei yu han guo zhong qing nan dao xi shan de fu shi si, yu 1370 nian bei wo kou jie lue zhi ri ben. jian ci, han guo da tian di fang fa yuan sui yu 2016 nian 1 yue 26 ri yi shen xuan pan, han guo tuan huo cong ri ben dao hui de fo xiang shi liu shi dao ri ben de han guo wen wu, ying gui huan gei han guo fu shi si, bu bi gui huan ri ben. zhe yi pan jue de dao han guo she hui ge jie yi ji guo ji she hui de gao du ping jia, ji da ti gao le han guo fa yuan de guo ji ying xiang li. yu han guo xiang bi, wo guo bu lun shi zai liu shi wen wu de shu liang ji pin zhi shang, hai shi zai guo jia de guo ji ying xiang li shang jun yuan sheng yu zhi. yin ci, ke yi yu jian, yi dan wei lai wo guo ren min fa yuan zai she ji zhong yao wen wu fan huan de guo ji jiu fen shang zuo chu biao gan xing pan jue, bi ran hui chan sheng geng da de guo ji ying xiang li. zhe bu jin neng gai xie wen wu zhui suo su song chang qi shou zhi yu xi fang wen wu shi chang guo fa yuan de ju mian, ye neng gou ti gao wo guo si fa de guo ji ying xiang li yu mei yu du, ju you shen yuan de li shi yi yi. san zai" yi dai yi lu" chang yi kuang jia xia, yin ling xie tiao yan xian guo gong tong cu jin guo ji gui ze de gai ge yu wan shan qian yi lun ji," yi dai yi lu" yan xian guo da duo wei li shi you jiu wen wu zi yuan feng fu de guo jia, yu zhong guo yi yang, ta men ye mian lin zhe liu shi wen wu zhui suo de fan zhong ren wu. zai zhe zhong qing kuang xia, zhong guo ying dang zai" yi dai yi lu" kuang jia xia, lian he yin ling ju you wen wu zhui suo xu qiu de yan xian guo, xing cheng he li, mou qiu wen wu fan huan ling yu guo ji gui ze de zhi ding zhu dao quan, chang shi jian li wen wu fan huan ling yu de zheng fu jian lun tan hui yi huo guo ji zu zhi, zhu dao zhi ding geng jia gong ping zheng yi de guo ji gui ze, gai bian wen wu liu chu guo zhui suo wen wu ge zi wei zhan de zhuang tai, gai bian gai ling yu guo ji gui ze chang qi you xi fang wen wu shi chang guo ba kong de ju mian. you qi xu yao qiang diao de shi, cong mu qian lai kan, wo guo tui xing" yi dai yi lu" jian she, jiang zhong dian tou ru jing mao he zuo ling yu, zai wen hua, te bie shi wen wu ling yu de guan zhu du xiang dui bu zu. kao lv dao" yi dai yi lu" yan xian guo da du wei wen ming gu guo, guo min de wen hua yu chuan tong yi shi nong hou, zai" yi dai yi lu" kuang jia xia ji shi qi dong wen wu bao hu yu liu shi wen wu fan huan de guo ji he zuo, ke yi da da zeng jin wo guo yu yan xian guo de min xin xiang tong, tui dong" yi dai yi lu" jian she shou dao yan xian guo min zhong de ren ke yong hu yu zhi chi. cong zhe ge yi yi shang shuo, jiang wen wu zhui suo fang zai" yi dai yi lu" chang yi bei jing xia yun chou, ji ju bi yao xing yu zhan lue xing. si tan suo zai zhong guo cheng li jie jue kua guo wen wu gui shu jiu fen de zhuan men xing guo ji si fa ji gou dang qian, zai jie jue kua guo wen wu gui shu jiu fen ling yu, guo ji shang hai wei jian li zhuan men xing de guo ji si fa ji gou, ci lei jiu fen yin er da duo zhi neng su zhu wen wu shi chang guo de guo nei fa yuan. cong wen wu shi chang guo guo nei fa yuan de si fa shi jian lai kan, ji yu zhei xie guo jia de fa lv chuan tong yu she hui jing ji bei jing, qi guo nei fa yuan tong chang jiang ci lei jiu fen ding xing wei cai chan huo wu de suo you quan jiu fen, shi yong qi min shang fa tiao zheng suo you quan yu jiao yi de fa lv gui ze, zai hen da cheng du shang hu shi le wen wu de ben zhi shu xing. huan yan zhi, wen wu shi chang guo fa yuan jiang wen wu gui shu jiu fen ding xing wei pu tong de cai chan jiu fen, zhe gou cheng wen wu zhui suo su song nan yi cheng gong de zhong yao yuan yin. zai ci bei jing xia, jin nian lai guo ji shang you hu sheng ti chu, jian li zhuan men jie jue wen wu gui shu jiu fen de guo ji si fa ji gou, yi niu zhuan dang qian wen wu jiu fen pu bian bei ge guo fa yuan ding xing wei pu tong de cai chan jiu fen de ju mian. ran er, you yu ti chu ci gou xiang de shi xi fang xue zhe, suo yi, ta men zhu zhang zai guo ji si fa zhong xin he lan hai ya jian li ci lei guo ji si fa ji gou. jin guan jian li yi ci lei zhuan men guo ji si fa ji gou de zhu zhang zhi de ken ding, dan xuan ze he lan de zhu zhang bing bu qia dang. shou xian, he lan shi dian xing de wen wu shi chang guo, cun zai ming xian de li yi pian xiang, zheng yin wei ru ci, he lan qi jin wei jia ru dui wen wu fan huan zui wei you li de" 1995 nian gong yue". yin ci, zai gai guo jian li ci lei si fa ji gou bing bu he shi. qi ci, zhong guo shi shi jie gong ren de wen ming gu guo wen wu zi yuan da guo, yi jing jia ru wen wu bao hu yu liu shi wen wu fan huan de suo you zhong yao guo ji gong yue, zai zhong guo jian li zhuan men jie jue wen wu gui shu jiu fen de guo ji si fa ji gou yin er ju you tian ran you shi yu he li xing. zai ci, ru qian suo shu, jin ru 21 shi ji yi hou, zhong guo yi jing cong guo qu dan chun de wen wu liu chu guo bian wei jian ju wen wu shi chang da guo yu wen wu zi yuan da guo de shen fen, zai zhe zhong qing kuang xia, zai zhong guo jian li ci lei ji gou, ke yi jiao hao ping heng wen wu shi chang guo yu wen wu liu shi guo de li yi, geng qi zuo chu de pan jue ye rong yi bei guo ji she hui jie shou. you ci ke jian, zhong guo shi jian li ci lei guo ji si fa ji gou de li xiang guo jia. jian ci, wo guo zui gao si fa ji guan ke yi tan suo jian li zhuan men jie jue wen wu gui shu jiu fen de guo ji si fa ji gou, jiang zhong guo zhu bu da zao cheng jie jue guo ji wen wu jiu fen de si fa zhong xin, ti gao zhong guo si fa de guo ji ying xiang li, zhang xian zhong hua wen ming de guo ji di wei, wei shi xian zhong hua min zu wei da fu xing de zhong guo meng fa hui ji ji zuo yong. wu jiang dui ri zhui suo wen wu ti shang yi shi ri cheng bing shi shi tui jin zui hou, xu yao zhi chu, dui yu zhong guo de wen wu zhui suo shi ye er yan, dui ri zhui suo wen wu shi yi ge xu yao te bie yu yi kao lv de zhong da wen ti. mu qian, wo guo ge jie guan zhu de zhu yao shi liu shi ou mei di zhong guo wen wu, er ri ben qin hua qi jian jie lue wen wu de fan huan wen ti shang wei yin qi wo guo zheng fu yu min jian de zhong shi. shi shi shang, ri ben jie lue de zhong guo wen wu, wu lun shi zai shu liang shang, hai shi pin zhi shang, jun yuan chao guo ou mei guo jia kang ri zhan zheng qi jian, ri ben gei zhong guo wen wu zao cheng de po huai, yuan chao guo jin dai yi lai li ci wai qiang fa dong de qin hua zhan zheng. li shi zi liao xian shi, zai quan mian fa dong qin hua zhan zheng hou, ri ben dang ju zhi ding bing shi shi le xi tong xing de jie lue zhong guo wen wu de zheng ce, dui zhong guo wen hua yi chan zao cheng le hui mie xing de po huai. ju zhong guo zheng fu bu wan quan tong ji, 1945 nian kang ri zhan zheng jie shu hou, bei ri ben lue duo de wen wu gong yue 1879 xiang, 360 wan jian, zao dao po huai de wen hua gu ji da 741 chu. mu qian, ri ben yong you 1000 yu zuo da xiao bo wu guan, gong shou cang zhong guo li dai wen wu jin 200 wan jian zhi duo, da duo shu wei ri ben qin hua zhan zheng qi jian bei jie lue dao ri ben de, jin dong jing guo li bo wu guan yi jia, jiu cang you zhong guo li dai wen wu zhen pin 9 wan yu jian, qi zhong zhen pin gu pin nan song zhu ming hua jia ma yuan de han jiang du diao tu bu ji qi shu, yuan yuan chao guo zhong guo guo nei de xu duo bo wu guan. ci wai, da ban shi li dong yang tao ci mei shu guan da ban shi li mei shu guan jing du quan wu bo gu guan teng jing you lin guan gen jin mei shu guan deng ye shou cang you da liang zhong guo zhen gui wen wu, bao kuo wang xi zhi de mei zhi tie ding wu lan ting xu shi qi tie ji wang sheng jiao xu deng xi shi wen wu zhen pin. zhei xie bei jie lue zhi ri ben de zhong guo wen wu, ji shi zhong hua min zu wu fa ge she de wen wu zhen bao, ye shi ri ben qin lue zui xing di que qie zheng ju. zhi de qiang diao de shi, kang ri zhan zheng shi shi jie fan fa xi si zhan zheng de you ji zu cheng bu fen. ri ben lue duo wen wu he na cui de guo lue duo yi shu pin jun dui shou hai guo jia he shou hai zhe zao cheng zhong da sun hai. ran er, yu ri ben ji hu wei dui zhong guo gui huan wen wu bu tong, tong yang zuo wei er zhan de zhan bai guo, de guo zai zhan zheng qi jian jie lue ta guo de wen wu ji yi shu pin zai zhan hou de dao le xi tong xing fan huan. ci wai, zuo wei ri ben qin lue shou hai guo de han guo, tong guo duo nian bu xie nu li, yi jing jiao wei che di de jie jue le ri ben jie lue chao xian ban dao wen wu de fan huan wen ti. zhe yi zhuang kuang ying dang yin qi wo guo ge jie de gao du guan zhu yu shen ru si kao. dang qian, zhong ri guan xi yin ri ben dang ju shi tu fou ren shen zhi mei hua qin lue li shi yi ji diao yu dao zhu quan jiu fen deng yuan yin xian ru di gu, zai ci bei jing xia, dui ri ben qin hua qi jian jie lue zhong guo wen wu de fan huan wen ti jin xing yan jiu bing shi shi ti chu, bu jin ju you zhong yao de li lun jia zhi, ye shi yu ri ben you yi shi li jin xing dou zheng de shou duan, fu he guo jia de zhong da xian shi xu qiu. xu yao zhi chu, zhong guo yao qiu ri ben fan huan qi jie lue wen wu, bing bu cun zai ren he fa lv zhang ai. you ri ben xue zhe ren wei, 1972 nian zhong ri zhong ri lian he sheng ming zai ming," zhong hua ren min gong he guo zheng fu xuan bu, wei le zhong ri liang guo ren min de you yi, fang qi dui ri ben guo de zhan zheng pei chang yao qiu", ju ci, zhong guo zheng fu yi sang shi le dui ri wen wu zhui suo quan. ran er, zhe yi guan dian shi zhan bu zhu jiao de. yi ju zhong ri lian he sheng ming, zhong guo fang qi de zheng fu ceng mian di zhan zheng suo pei quan, bing bu ying xiang zhong guo min jian de dui ri suo pei tong shi, zheng fu ceng mian di zhan zheng suo pei shi zhi zhong guo zheng fu yao qiu ri ben zheng fu dui fa dong qin lue zhan zheng gei zhong guo zao cheng de sun hai jin xing jing ji pei chang, er yao qiu ri ben fan huan qi lue duo de wen wu ze shi yuan wu fan huan qing qiu quan, liang zhe wan quan shi liang zhong xing zhi bu tong de quan li. yin ci, zhong ri lian he sheng ming guan yu zhong guo zheng fu fang qi dui dui ri ben guo de zhan zheng pei chang, bing bu ying xiang zhong guo yao qiu ri ben fan huan qi zai zhan zheng qi jian bao li lue duo de zhong guo wen wu. you ci ke jian, zhong guo yao qiu ri ben fan huan qi zai qin hua qi jian jie lue de zhong guo wen wu bing bu cun zai ren he fa lv zhang ai. bu jin ru ci, ri ben bao li lue duo de bu ji qi shu de zhong guo zhen gui wen wu, shi zhong hua min zu qu ru jin dai shi de jian zheng zhe, ye shi ri ben qin lue qi jian fan xia tao tian zui xing de tie zheng. zai ci bei jing xia, ji ji tui dong ri lue wen wu de fan huan, bu jin shi zhong hua min zu bu rong bo duo de quan li, ye shi yu ri ben you yi shi li fou ren li shi de chou e xing jing zhan kai dou zheng de you li wu qi. suo yi, dui ri zhui suo qin hua zhan zheng qi jian jie lue de zhong guo wen wu, zhong guo zhan ju you li de guo ji dao yi yu lun you shi, yi dan ti chu, bi jiang cheng wei dui ri wai jiao zhong you li yu wo fang bu li yu ri fang de yi zhao qi ju. jian ci, ying dang jiang dui ri zhui suo wen wu na ru yi shi ri cheng, bing zai dui ri wai jiao de zheng ti kuang jia xia yu yi yun chou yu tui jin. liu jin kuai qi dong wen wu fan huan an li yan jiu, wei zhi ding wen wu zhui suo zhan lue yu ce lue ti gong li lun ji chu 20 shi ji xia ban ye yi lai, you qi shi jin 30 nian lai, sui zhe guo ji zheng zhi jing ji ge ju de gai bian yu guo ji fa lv huan jing de yan jin, zai wen wu liu shi guo de bu xie nu li xia, chu xian le yue lai yue duo de cheng gong suo hui wen wu de an li. cong guo bie lai kan, zhei xie an li zhu yao ji zhong zai zuo wei wen wu shi chang guo de ou mei guo jia, you qi shi mei guo ying guo de guo yu fa guo deng, bing cheng xian chu zhu jian kuo zhan zhi shi cong cheng gong suo hui de tu jing lai kan, ji you su song, ye you juan zeng gou mai xie shang yu tan pan zhong cai yi ji di san fang wo xuan deng, wen wu gui shu jiu fen de duo yuan hua jie jue ji zhi chu xian duan ni. dui zhei xie wen wu zhui suo an li jin xing xi tong shu li yu shen ru yan jiu yi yi zhong da. shou xian, yu qi ta wen wu liu shi guo yi yang, zhong guo liu shi dao jing wai de wen wu yi zhu yao ji zhong zai ou mei wen wu shi chang guo. dui zhei xie guo jia xian you de fan huan wen wu an li jin xing fen xi yu yan jiu, bu jin ke yi liao jie zhei xie guo jia zai gai ling yu de li fa yu si fa shi jian, hai ke yi zhang wo zhei xie guo jia zai mian dui wai guo ti chu wen wu fan huan qing qiu shi, qi xiang guan zheng fu bu men de yun zuo ji zhi, zhe shi wo guo yan pan zai wen wu shi chang guo zhui suo wen wu ying cai qu shen me tu jing yi ji zhi ding xi tong xing de wen wu zhui suo zhan lue de ji chu. qi ci, dui zhei xie wen wu fan huan an li jin xing fen guo bie fen tu jing de gui lei yan jiu you zhu yu wo guo jin hou chu li wen wu zhui suo de ge an shi, shi wen wu suo zai guo de ju ti guo bie yu ju ti an qing zhi ding you zhen dui xing de zhui suo ce lue yu gong zuo fang an. you xu qiang diao, you yu ying mei liang da wen wu shi chang guo jun wei pu tong fa xi guo jia, yi ju" yin xun xian li" stare decisis yuan ze, xian you de pan li dui qi si fa ji guan wei lai chu li lei si de wen wu gui shu jiu fen ju you yue shu li, dui zhe liang ge guo jia de wen wu fan huan an li jin xing shu li yan jiu de zhong yao xing zi bu dai yan. zai ci, zhe yi yan jiu you zhu yu wo guo xiang qi ta wen wu liu chu guo ji qu cheng gong jing yan yin jian shi bai jiao xun, you li yu wo guo yi geng jia you li you xiao de fang shi tui jin wen wu zhui suo gong zuo. ci wai, dui qi ta wen wu liu shi guo zhui suo wen wu zhan kai shi zheng fen xi ye you zhu yu wo guo zai chong fen liao jie qi wen wu zhui suo shi jian de ji chu shang jia qiang yu zhei xie guo jia de he zuo yu jiao liu, gong tong tui dong gai ling yu guo ji fa lv zhi xu de gai ge yu wan shan, cong er wei wen wu zhui suo chuang zao geng jia gong ping zheng yi de guo ji fa lv huan jing. wei lun zao ri rang zhang gong zu shi rou shen zuo fu hui jia, shi yang chun cun cun min he yi wan zhong guo min zhong de gong tong qi pan. dao ben wen wan cheng shi, ju li he lan fa yuan jiu zhui suo gai zuo fu de min shi su song ju xing de shou ci fa ting ting zheng you guo le 3 ge yue. ran er, jing duo fang qiu zheng, yi ran mei you ren he xin de jin zhan. ke yi yu jian, wei lai he lan fa yuan zai ci an shang cai qu de yi ju yi dong, dou jiang yin fa zhong guo nai zhi guo ji she hui de gao du guan zhu. liu shi wen wu zhui suo zhi nan kua guo su song zhi man chang wen wu fan huan zhi zhong yao, you ci ke jian yi ban. cong zhe ge yi yi shang shuo, you zhe zuo rou shen zuo fu zhui suo an yin fa de guan zhu yu si kao, zai xian jie duan hai bu neng hua shang ju hao. dui yu ben an de hou xu fa zhan, li lun yu shi wu jie xu yao chi xu guan zhu dui yu zhong guo zhui suo wen wu de zheng yi shi ye, geng xu yao she hui ge jie de gong tong nu li yu xie li tui jin. ze ren bian ji: li xiao guo wen zhang lai yuan: yuan wen kan fa yu fa lv shi yong. si fa an li 2017 nian di 20 qi, yin yong qing can zhao yuan wen.

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关键词:非你不可 艺声,北戴河临海住宿,55isese责任编辑:海扁文
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